New Delhi: In a major development, the Modi cabinet has approved the National Education Policy 2020. Further, the Ministry of Human Resource and Development (MHRD) has also been rechristened as the Ministry of Education by the Centre. “The Cabinet under Prime Minister Narendra Modi has given approval to a new education policy for the 21st century. It is important as for 34 years there were no changes in the education policy,” I&B Minister Prakash Javadekar said today at a press briefing. Also Read - National Education Policy 2020: This is How Ed-Tech Firms in India Aim to Grab The Digital Space

What are the major reforms in the National Education Policy 2020: Also Read - ‘Dream Has Come True’: Here’s What Top Political Leaders Say on Ram Mandir Bhoomi Pujan

1)  Board exams will be low-stakes and test actual-knowledge instead of rote learning; Mother tongue to be a medium of instruction till 5th grade; report cards will be a comprehensive report on skills and capabilities instead of just marks and statements. Also Read - 'Saddened': Tamil Nadu CM Rejects Centre's 3-Language Policy Under NEP 2020, Won't Implement in State

2) Sanskrit will be mainstreamed with strong offerings in school – including as one of the language options in the three-language formula – as well as in higher education. Sanskrit Universities too will move towards becoming large multidisciplinary institutions of higher learning.

3) A National Testing Agency will be formed to offer a common entrance exam for admission to higher education institutions (HEIs).

4) National mission to focus on basic literacy and basic numeracy; major changes in the pedagogical structure of curriculum with no rigid separation between streams; all separations between vocational and academic and curricular and extra-curricular will also be removed.

5) Major reforms in higher education include a target of 50 per cent gross enrollment ratio by 2035 and provision for multiple entry/exit.

6) As on date, we have different norms for deemed universities, central universities, for different individual standalone institutions. New Education Policy says that for reasons of quality, norms will be same for all & not as per ownership.

7) There are over 45,000 affiliated colleges in our country. Under Graded Autonomy, Academic, Administrative and  Financial Autonomy will be given to colleges, on the basis of the status of their accreditation, said Amit Khare.

8) Other features include graded academic, administrative and financial autonomy of institutions and a single regulator for all higher education, working under a self-disclosure based transparent system for approvals in place of numerous ‘inspections’, the Centre said.

9) E-courses will be developed in regional languages; virtual labs will be developed and a National Educational Technology Forum (NETF) is being created, Government of India asserted.