World Heart Day is being celebrated today by the World Heart Federation. This year the theme for World Heart Day 2017 is ‘Share the power’. The World Heart Federation has created this platform to make people aware about different cardiovascular diseases. Heart is a vital organ of your body, but in this fast paced life, adoption of unhealthy lifestyle is leading to various heart problems. We share with you types of heart diseases and the symptoms on this World Heart Day. These inputs have been shared to us by Dr. Santosh Kumar Dora, Cardiac Electro Physiologist, Asian Heart Institute. (ALSO READ World Heart Day 2017: Cardiologist Dr Tilak Suvarna Answers the Top 17 FAQs about Heart Attack). Also Read - COVID-19 Third Wave: Guidelines on How to Protect Children From Coronavirus Infection
What is angina
Angina is a term used to describe chest discomfort due to lack of oxygen and blood supply to the heart muscle. It is typically described as squeezing, pressing, tightness or heaviness on the chest. Atypical angina symptoms include breathlessness, fatigue, burning pain on chest, abdominal discomfort, vomiting, sweating, jaw pain etc. Atypical angina is more often seen in women. Angina is caused by coronary artery disease. Coronary artery disease is caused by deposition of cholesterol and fatty substances on the wall of coronary artery. This deposition is known as plaque. When the plaque grows sufficiently it leads to obstruction to the blood flow to the heart muscle which leads to angina. Angina can be stable or unstable. Also Read - Can Your Brain Find Out if a Bad Event is About to Happen? This Study Says so
Symptoms of Stable angina: Also Read - Pooja Batra Performs Floating Camel Asana With Effortless Ease in New Yoga Post
Appears during exercise like fast walking, climbing stairs etc.
Disappears on taking rest
Disappears on taking antianginal drugs
Predictable in the sense, you know that when you walk for certain distance it appears.
Symptoms of Unstable angina:
Appears with minimal exercise and even at rest
Angina appearing at a shorter walking distance
Angina lasting for more than few minutes of rest
Angina not responding to the antianginal drugs
Unstable angina may signal onset of heart attack
What is arrhythmia
Arrhythmia is a term which is used to describe alteration of normal heart rate and or rhythm. Normal heart rate varies from 60 to 100 per minute and the rhythm is usually regular. If the heart rate is too high or too slow or irregular in rhythm, then arrhythmia is known to exist.
The symptoms of arrhythmia:
Giddiness, lightheadedness, blackout
Fainting or near fainting
Pounding sensation on chest
What is cardiomyopathy
Cardiomyopathy is a condition where heart muscle is abnormal or diseased. Heart muscle is either weak or stiff and thus leads to inadequate pumping of blood to the rest of the body. In severe cases it leads to heart failure.
The symptoms of cardiomyopathy:
Breathlessness on exertion or even at rest in severe cases
Swelling of the legs, ankles and feet
Cough on lying down
Irregular heart beat
What is high blood pressure
High blood pressure is known to exist when the systolic BP is more than 140 mm Hg and diastolic BP is more than 90 mm Hg. It is a very common condition and affects almost 30 to 40% of patients after the age of 50.
In most cases high BP does not give rise to any symptoms and it is diagnosed only during routine health examinations or while getting examined for some other disease process. That’s why it is called as silent killer. Even if there are some symptoms they are not very specific and can be easily missed.
What is high cholesterol
Cholesterol is a waxy substance found in the fats in your blood. It is an essential component of cell and many hormones. However excess cholesterol in the blood can be harmful. It can lead to deposits in the artery supplying oxygen rich blood to the heart muscles and brain. Excess deposit may lead to angina, heart attack or stroke. Excess cholesterol in the blood can be sometimes hereditary. But more often it is due to bad eating habits and lack of exercise.
Symptoms due to excess cholesterol deposits in the artery:
What is myocardial infarction
Myocardial infarction is also known as heart attack in common language. It occurs when there is a sudden block in blood flow in one or more arteries supplying blood to the heart muscle. This blocks occurs due to rupture of cholesterol rich plaques present in the lumen of the coronary arteries. Heart attack normally gives rise to severe pain at the center of the chest. It can be fatal at times when heart attack is complicated by very fast heart rate, a condition known as ventricular fibrillation. Commonly this condition is known as cardiac arrest.
Symptoms of myocardial infarction:
Severe chest pain or tightness on chest that may radiate to jaw or arm
Epigastric pain, vomiting
Congestive heart failure
Heart failure, sometimes known as congestive heart failure, occurs when your heart muscle doesn’t pump blood as well as it should. Certain conditions like heart attack can damage the heart muscle and make heart pumping very weak. Other conditions like viral infection, cardiomyopathy, incessantly fast heart rate etc can affect heart muscle and make the pumping very weak.
Heart failure signs and symptoms may include:
Shortness of breath when you exert yourself or when you lie down
Fatigue and weakness
Swelling in your legs, ankles, and feet
Rapid or irregular heartbeat
Reduced ability to exercise
Persistent cough or wheezing with white or pink blood-tinged phlegm
Increased need to urinate at night
Swelling of your abdomen
Sudden weight gain from fluid retention
Lack of appetite and nausea
Difficulty concentrating or decreased alertness
Sudden, severe shortness of breath and coughing up pink, foamy mucus, a condition known as pulmonary edema