Bengaluru (more famously known by previous name Bangalore), is the capital city of Karnataka, a state in Southern India. It is the third most populous city in India. In addition to that, Bengaluru is the fifth most populous urban agglomeration in the nation. It is located on the Deccan Plateau in Southern India at a height of over 900 m above sea level. The climate of Bengaluru is pleasant throughout the year. The city has a strong historical significance and evidence suggests that it was a hub of international trade dating to the era of Roman Empire. The city came to be known as Bangalore under the British Raj and the names stayed even after independence. However, in the year 2005 the Government of Karnataka decided to change the name back to Bengaluru. The proposal was passed and in 2006, the city was officially renamed to Bengaluru. However, to many people, the southern metropolitan city continues to be Bangalore. Bengaluru is also regarded as the "Silicon Valley of India".
The Indian technological organisations ISRO, Wipro, Infosys and HAL are headquartered in Bengaluru. It is the second fastest growing major metropolitan city of the nation. Many elite educational institutions are located in the city namely Indian Institute of Science (IISc), Bangalore; National Institute of Fashion Technology, Bangalore; Indian Institute of Management (Bangalore) (IIMB), National Institute of Design (NID R&D Campus), National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences (NIMHANS) and National Law School of India University (NLSIU). Many state-owned aerospace as well as defence organisations, such as Hindustan Aeronautics, Bharat Electronics, and National Aerospace Laboratories are also located in Bangalore. It houses the Kannada film industry. In Bangalore, the Primary and secondary education is offered by many schools which are affiliated to the boards of education, such as the Secondary School Leaving Certificate (SSLC), Central Board for Secondary Education (CBSE), Indian Certificate of Secondary Education (ICSE), International Baccalaureate (IB), National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) and International General Certificate of Secondary Education (IGCSE). For higher education, the biggest University in the city is the Bangalore University which was set up in the year 1886. Around 500 colleges are affiliated to Bangalore University. A total of 300,000 students are enrolled in its two campuses, namely, Jnanabharathi and Central College, both in the main city of Bengaluru. University Visvesvaraya College of Engineering was set up in the year 1917 by Bharat Ratna Sir M. Visvesvaraya. Currently, the only engineering college under the Bangalore University is UVCE. In addition, there are many private Engineering Colleges affiliated to Visvesvaraya Technological University. The city houses some of the biggest names of technological and scientific research institutes of the country as well. The Indian Institute of Science was established in Bangalore in the year 1909. A recognized centre for excellence, the IISc was recently named as the top institute in the country and also featured in the World Ranking. National Centre for Biological Sciences (NCBS), Raman Research Institute and Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research (JNCASR) are the other premier institutes for scientific research and study in the city. Some of the nationally renowned professional institutes located in Bangalore are the University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore (UASB), National Institute of Fashion Technology (NIFT), National Law School of India University (NLSIU), National Institute of Design(NID), the Indian Institute of Management, Bangalore (IIM-B), the Indian Statistical Institute, the ICAR-National Institute of Animal Nutrition and Physiology (NIANP) and International Institute of Information Technology, Bangalore (IIIT-B). Some mental health institutions in Bangalore are National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences (NIMHANS), St. John's Medical College (SJMC) and Bangalore Medical College and Research Institute (BMCRI). The expanding presence of multinationals in the city has made Bengaluru a educational institutions under various universities, namely, M.S. Ramaiah University of Applied Sciences, University of Mysore, Bangalore University, Visvesvaraya Technological University, Alliance University, Christ University, Reva University, Kuvempu University, The University of Agricultural Sciences, Symbiosis International University, Manipal University, PES University and Karnataka State Open University.
Bangalore is also home to one of country's top management institutes - IIM Bangalore which was the fifth IIM instituted in the IIM family and ranks among the top 5 IIMs of the country. The city boasts of a truly metropolitan culture. Some go on to call it India's first global city. Both classical as well as contemporary music are played in Bangalore. Rock music is the dominant music genre in urban Bangalore. Bangalore Rock music is an amalgamation of classic rock, heavy metal and hard rock. Notable bands from Bangalore include Kryptos, Raghu Dixit Project, Inner Sanctum, All the Fat Children, Swaratma and Agam. Vegetation in the Bangalore city is mainly in the form of minority coconut trees and large deciduous canopy. The city has been segregated as a part of the seismic zone II which is considered a stable zone. It is also the country's technological hub. Some of the biggest Public Sector Undertakings (PSUs) like Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL), Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL), National Aerospace Laboratories (NAL), Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited (BHEL), Bharat Earth Movers Limited (BEML), Central Manufacturing Technology Institute (CMTI) and HMT (formerly Hindustan Machine Tools) are located in Bangalore. Also, the city is the headquarter to India's flagship space program ISRO (Indian Space Research Organisation), established under the Department of Space set up in 1972. Bangalore is also an important economic centre of the country. With a net district income of over US$ 8 billion, it is also one of the most affluent cities of the country. In fact, its per capita income is at about INR 75000 and it is the third largest hub of high net worth individuals. About 60,000 super rich people of the country reportedly reside in the city. One of the biggest reasons is the presence of research and development centres of the biggest names in the industry, including ABB, Airbus, Bosch, Boeing, GE, GM, Google, Microsoft, Mercedes-Benz, Nokia, Oracle, Philips, Shell, Toyota and Tyco. It is also the home of India's IT majors like Infosys and Wipro. It is also the biotechnological hub of the country with nearly 47% of biotechnology firms, including the market leader - Biocon, located in the city. Not just that, the technological advantage of the region. The booming economy, however, continues to create infrastructural bottlenecks. The increased spending power has led to an astronomical increased in real estate value. The city constantly witnesses traffic snarls and was more recently in the news due to the Cauvery Water Dispute, which saw many factions of society creating havoc in the city.